Since the X chromosome is larger and has space for genes that cannot fit on the smaller Y chromosome, males carry slightly less genetic information than females. But in females, where the Z chromosome does not recombine, the two alleles always pass to offspring together. However, when a male inherits an X chromosome with a recessive mutation, it will appear in him if his Y chromosome does not have a matching gene on it which it usually does not.
Male birds have two Z chromosomes, and females have a Z and a W. A well-known sex-linked trait is color blindness. In a female bird ZW , her single color allele determines her feather color. Well-known examples in people include genes that control color blindness and male pattern baldness. In contrast, a female must inherit two mutant alleles, a less frequent event since the mutant allele is rare in the population. Consequently, red-green colorblindness is much more frequent in boys 1 in 12 than in girls 1 in So for all of the genes on the autosomes, both males and females have two copies. Sex-linked Traits Sex-linked traits are characteristics other than sex that are carried by the sex chromosomes coiled structures in a cell's nucleus that carries the cell's genetic information. If a female has an X chromosome with the defective gene carrying color blindness, chances are her other X chromosome has a gene with normal vision, and she will not be color blind. But in males ZZ , two alleles work together to determine feather color according to their dominance. Female mammals make eggs, which always have an X chromosome. Sex Linkage Sex Linkage Sex linkage applies to genes that are located on the sex chromosomes. The Y chromosome has few genes, but the X chromosome has more than 1, However, when a male inherits an X chromosome with a recessive mutation, it will appear in him if his Y chromosome does not have a matching gene on it which it usually does not. These are sex-linked traits. Sex chromosomes in humans do more than determine whether a person is male or female, and they can carry such traits as the condition color blindness and the disease muscular dystrophy. Since it is larger, it naturally has room for more genes, which carry specific traits. Most sex-linked traits occur only on the X chromosome since it is larger than the Y chromosome. Experimental cross performed by Thomas Hunt Morgan , illustrating the X-linked inheritance of white-eyed mutation in fruit flies. These and other sex-inked disorders are much more common in boys than in girls. That is why color blindness shows up most often in males. Homologous chromosomes have the same genes arranged in the same order. The term 'color-blind' is not completely accurate. But when sex chromosomes do have a homologue as in XX female mammals and ZZ male birds , the sex chromosomes recombine to make new allele combinations. Once this occurs, whichever gene is dominant such as tallness usually gets expressed in the offspring. Females have two X chromosomes, and males have an X and a Y. One gene on the Z chromosome affects feather color ; three different alleles make feathers blue, ash-red, or brown.
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X-Linked Trait Review
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