Koisans

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They are categorized in two families, and a number of possible language isolates. Physical characteristics and genetics[ edit ] Further information: Following the end of Apartheid in , the term "Khoisan" has gradually come to be used as a self-designation by South African Khoikhoi as representing the "first nations" of South Africa vis-a-vis the ruling Bantu majority. In the s, the government of Botswana began a policy of "relocating" CKGR residents outside the reserve.

Koisans


The settlements thrived and expanded, and Kat River quickly became a large and successful region of the Cape that subsisted more or less autonomously. A legal battle began, and in the High Court of Botswana ruled that the residents had been forcibly and unconstitutionally removed. Following the end of Apartheid in , the term "Khoisan" has gradually come to be used as a self-designation by South African Khoikhoi as representing the "first nations" of South Africa vis-a-vis the ruling Bantu majority. By the end of the century the majority of the Khoisan operated as 'wage laborers', not that dissimilar to slaves. Andries Stockenstrom facilitated the creation of the "Kat River" Khoi settlement near the eastern frontier of the Cape Colony. Kung includes about a dozen dialects, with no clear-cut delineation between them. The people were predominantly Afrikaans-speaking Gonaqua Khoi, but the settlement also began to attract other Khoi, Xhosa and mixed-race groups of the Cape. The government enacted the Cape franchise in , which decreed that all male citizens meeting a low property test, regardless of colour, had the right to vote and to seek election in Parliament. The South African Deputy Chief Land Claims Commissioner, Thami Mdontswa, has said that constitutional reform would be required to enable Khoisan people to pursue further claims to land from which their direct ancestors were removed prior to 9 June Khoe also has been tentatively aligned with Kwadi "Kwadi—Khoe" , and more speculatively with the Sandawe language of Tanzania "Khoe—Sandawe". Bleek and Lucy C. The Hadza language of Tanzania has been associated with the Khoisan group due to the presence of click consonants. These haplogroups are specific sub-groups of haplogroups A and B , the two earliest branches on the human Y-chromosome tree. In the s, the government of Botswana began a policy of "relocating" CKGR residents outside the reserve. The modern distribution of the Khoisan languages spoken by Khoi and San peoples, plus the Sandawe language and Hadza language of Tanzania. Khoikhoi social organisation was profoundly damaged and, in the end, destroyed by colonial expansion and land seizure from the late 17th century onwards. Physical characteristics and genetics[ edit ] Further information: The issuing of grazing licenses north of the Berg River in what was then the Tulbagh Basin propelled colonial expansion in the area. Early European settlers sometimes intermarried with Khoikhoi women, resulting in a sizeable mixed-race population now known as the Griqua. Local population dropped after the Khoi were exposed to smallpox from Europeans. San woman in Namibia photograph The Khoikhoi enter the historical record with their first contact with Portuguese explorers, about 1, years after their displacement by the Bantu. This non-racial principle was later abolished by the Apartheid Government. They were brought to the globalized world's attention in the s by South African author Laurens van der Post in a six-part television documentary. This system of land relocation led to the Khoijhou losing their land and livestock as well as dramatic change in the social, economic and political development. The Khoi waged more frequent attacks against Europeans when the Dutch East India Company enclosed traditional grazing land for farms. The authors of these studies suggested that the San may have been one of the first populations to differentiate from the most recent common paternal ancestor of all extant humans. As social structures broke down, some Khoikhoi people settled on farms and became bondsmen bondservants or farm workers; others were incorporated into existing clan and family groups of the Xhosa people.

Koisans

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