The Open Letter refuted concerns about some side effects, such as possible shortfalls in manpower, rapid population aging, and distortions in sex ratios Greenhalgh and Winkler, The report argues that advocates of economic reforms ignored the human cost of the policies they were promoting, such as unemployment and human suffering, leading to an early death. In July , the State Council re-organized the leading teams administering family planning and many local governments began to re-organize or establish family planning divisions in order to promote planned childbearing in cities as well as in suburban areas all over China Yang,
He projected that the total population would peak at 4 billion in , although without any basis in reliable data. The primary beneficiaries of the population policy have been mothers and children: These conclusions were criticized by The Economist. The following June, 46 more babies were born in Ulyanovsk's 25 hospitals compared to the previous June, including 28 born on June 12, officials said. The dramatic decline in fertility rate is at least to a certain extent attributable to China's population policy, which is known as the one child policy. The country is struggling with a demographic crisis. In general, reduction of population growth as well as promotion and implementation of the one-child rule became the responsibility of each province, which would be in charge of making its own policies. Low fertility can effectively change the investment model of human capital; it can improve the development and quality of human capital. In , the number of births took a drop because of another recession that hit Russia starting in The Open Letter refuted concerns about some side effects, such as possible shortfalls in manpower, rapid population aging, and distortions in sex ratios Greenhalgh and Winkler, The subsequent development of China's population policy occurred in three phases: The report argues that advocates of economic reforms ignored the human cost of the policies they were promoting, such as unemployment and human suffering, leading to an early death. Despite the official announcement of continuation and consistency in the implementation of the current population policy, the removal of the Population and Family Planning Commission may indicate a potential modification of the policy in the near future. In addition, policies concerning urban housing, rural food rations, and private land allocation, for example, had to be aligned with family planning policies Yang, In urban areas, admission to nursery schools, enrollment in schools, medical care, recruitment in factories, housing, and social welfare, etc. Decreased fertility plays a positive role in economic growth in the early stages of the demographic transition. In the early s, the policy against abortion was in fact pronatalist, as a result of which, the total population increased rapidly White, Even in , China's population size, the first target of population policy, was projected to peak at 1. In the s, after Mao Zedong demolished sociology and demography in China, there were few qualified demographers 1. The Russian death rate in was In January , the national population and family planning conference announced that the 'Eleventh Five' period was crucial for stabilizing low birth rates to address population issues and to continue the nation's socio-economic development. Under the city council's "Give Birth to a Patriot" scheme, those who give birth on June 12, Russia Day, will get a prize. However, in the s, the government recognized the impact that the rapid population growth was having on the economy and began to develop systematic policy responses. We offer some suggestions that might be appropriate in the Chinese context. Immigration[ edit ] In , in a bid to compensate for the country's demographic decline, the Russian government started simplifying immigration laws and launched a state program "for providing assistance to voluntary immigration of ethnic Russians from former Soviet republics". But in order to accelerate economic development, the one-child policy was instituted.
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